Optical Fiber Cable

Optical Fiber Cable

Optical Fiber Cable and its structure:

A fiber optic cable basically consists of very thin strands of plastic or glass known as optical fibers; a cable could consist of a few as two strands or as many as several hundreds of them. These optical fiber cables carry information in the form of data between two locations using optical or light-based technology. Once an optical fiber starts traveling into the optical fiber cable (OFC), it will exit from the other end of the optical cable. Converting pulses of light back into electrical information would require a photoelectric cell that a computer could understand. In pfg optics, spherical lenses and plano optics are used to examine the optical fiber cables.

While the light travels down the cable, light repeatedly off the walls. The light beam does not leak from the edges of the fiber because it strikes the glass at a very low angle. And then it reflects again as if the glass were actually a mirror. This whole phenomenon is known as Total Internal Reflection. Another factor that keeps the light beam inside the pipe is the cable structure.

Fibers come with many advantages, the premium fibers have higher bandwidth and reach. Optical fiber cables (OFC) are now preferred over the older copper telecom cables as they provide high-speed broadband services. As the light travels 100% in the optical fiber, it loses 3% f its strength while copper wire losses 94%. Additionally, optical fibers are much longer-lasting than copper wires, which are very fragile.

It is very easy to tap copper wire since copper wires do not radiate signals that can be tapped. Optical fiber offers much lower latency (the time required to transmit data) than copper wires.

Different types of optic fiber cables:

The classification of the optical fiber cable is based on 4 factors- materials used, the refractive index, and mode of propagation of light.

  • Graded index fibber- The refractive index of an optical fiber decreases as the radial distance from the fiber axis increases.
  • Step index fibers- it consists of a core that is covered by the cladding, which has a uniform refractive index.
  • Glass fibers- It comprises of fine fibers made of glass
  • Plastic Optical fibers- Poly(methyl methacrylate) is used as the main material for the transmission of light.
  • Multimode fibers- It is ued fo transmission of signals over short distance.
  • Single-mode fibers- It is used fo transmission of signals over long distance.
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